Annika Pennington June 29, 2020 Anatomy
Furthermore, most movement involves muscles that work as a pair. For example, when we bend our arm, muscles in that region contract, become shorter and stiffer and pull the bones to the direction of movement. For relaxation (stretching), muscles in the opposite direction have to pull the bones towards it.
Joints are points at which two bones meet. They enable a range of movements like rotation, abduction, adduction, protraction, retraction and more. Based on flexibility and mobility, joints can be further classified into movable joints and immovable joints. Movable joints are flexible while immovable joints (also called fixed joints) are non-flexible since the bones are fused.
The leftover materials (stool) then move on to the large intestine where it transforms from liquid to solid, as water is removed. Finally, it gets pushed into the rectum, ready to be eliminated from the body.Every human being, tissues, human body parts and the organ systems are made up of cells- the fundamental unit of life. Anatomy is the science of understanding the structure and the parts of living organisms. Physiology, on the other hand, deals with the internal mechanisms and the processes that work towards sustaining life.
The human structure can be described as bipedal, with hair covering the body, presence of mammary glands and a set of extremely well-developed sense organs. With respect to human body anatomy, we have a specialized circulatory system that enables the efficient transport of materials and nutrients within the body.
Like anatomists, physiologists typically specialize in a particular branch of physiology. For example, neurophysiology is the study of the brain, spinal cord, and nerves and how these work together to perform functions as complex and diverse as vision, movement, and thinking. Physiologists may work from the organ level (exploring, for example, what different parts of the brain do) to the molecular level (such as exploring how an electrochemical signal travels along nerves).
In contrast, micro- means “small,” and microscopic anatomy is the study of structures that can be observed only with the use of a microscope or other magnification devices (Figure 1b). Microscopic anatomy includes cytology, the study of cells and histology, the study of tissues. As the technology of microscopes has advanced, anatomists have been able to observe smaller and smaller structures of the body, from slices of large structures like the heart, to the three-dimensional structures of large molecules in the body.
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