Makayla Bishop July 20, 2020 Anatomy
In 1887 the German Anatomical Society undertook the task of standardizing the nomenclature, and, with the help of other national anatomical societies, a complete list of anatomical terms and names was approved in 1895 that reduced the 50,000 names to 5,528. This list, the Basle Nomina Anatomica, had to be subsequently expanded, and in 1955 the Sixth International Anatomical Congress at Paris approved a major revision of it known as the Paris Nomina Anatomica (or simply Nomina Anatomica).
Owing to church prohibitions against dissection, European medicine in the Middle Ages relied upon Galen’s mixture of fact and fancy rather than on direct observation for its anatomical knowledge, though some dissections were authorized for teaching purposes. In the early 16th century, the artist Leonardo da Vinci undertook his own dissections, and his beautiful and accurate anatomical drawings cleared the way for Flemish physician Andreas Vesalius to “restore” the science of anatomy with his monumental De humani corporis fabrica libri septem (1543; “The Seven Books on the Structure of the Human Body”), which was the first comprehensive and illustrated textbook of anatomy. As a professor at the University of Padua, Vesalius encouraged younger scientists to accept traditional anatomy only after verifying it themselves, and this more critical and questioning attitude broke Galen’s authority and placed anatomy on a firm foundation of observed fact and demonstration.
Muscles are specialised tissues which assist the bones in locomotion. Muscles are attached to the bones through tendons. Movement of limbs happens due to the contraction and relaxation of corresponding muscles present in that region. Joints help in the flexibility of bones, but a bone cannot be bent or stretched until a muscle acts on it. In other words, the muscles attached to that bone pulls it to the direction of movement.
Whereas anatomy is about structure, physiology is about function. Human physiology is the scientific study of the chemistry and physics of the structures of the body and the ways in which they work together to support the functions of life. Much of the study of physiology centers on the body’s tendency toward homeostasis. Homeostasis is the state of steady internal conditions maintained by living things. The study of physiology certainly includes observation, both with the naked eye and with microscopes, as well as manipulations and measurements. However, current advances in physiology usually depend on carefully designed laboratory experiments that reveal the functions of the many structures and chemical compounds that make up the human body.
Even to this day, scientists are newly discovering organs that were previously overlooked or have been mistakenly identified as other existing tissues. In 2018, scientists had discovered a new, body-wide organ called the Interstitium that exists right under the skin.
And out of these 79 organs, five are crucial for survival, and any damage to these five organs might result in termination of life. These five crucial human body parts are the brain, heart, liver, lungs and kidneys. Read on to explore more about these body parts and their functions in detail:The process of digestion starts with mastication (chewing food). Then, the saliva mixes with food and forms a bolus, a small rounded mass that can be easily swallowed. Once swallowed, the food travels down the oesophagus and into the stomach. The stomach secretes strong acids and powerful enzymes that break the food down into a paste.
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