Reign Robles July 17, 2020 Anatomy
This is the result of humans having ancestors that began walking on their hind limbs rather than using all four limbs. Most of our anatomical insight was gained through the dissection of corpses (cadavers), and for a long time, it was the only way we could gain anatomical knowledge about the human body. It was a rather grotesque affair, but it made up the bulk of medical literature for centuries. These days, technological innovation has made it possible to explore human anatomy at a microscopic level.
Thin sections and staining had become standard tools for microscopic anatomists by the late 19th century. The field of cytology, which is the study of cells, and that of histology, which is the study of tissue organization from the cellular level up, both arose in the 19th century with the data and techniques of microscopic anatomy as their basis.
Like most scientific disciplines, anatomy has areas of specialization. Gross anatomy is the study of the larger structures of the body, those visible without the aid of magnification (Figure 1a). Macro- means “large,” thus, gross anatomy is also referred to as macroscopic anatomy.
In the 2nd century ce, Greek physician Galen assembled and arranged all the discoveries of the Greek anatomists, including with them his own concepts of physiology and his discoveries in experimental medicine. The many books Galen wrote became the unquestioned authority for anatomy and medicine in Europe because they were the only ancient Greek anatomical texts that survived the Dark Ages in the form of Arabic (and then Latin) translations.
The person who is trained to study human physiology is called a physiologist. Herman Boerhaave is referred to as the father of Physiology for his exemplary research and teaching during 1708.
The skeleton also protects several vital organs such as the heart, lungs and the liver. Bones are attached to other bones through ligaments, a fibrous connective tissue.
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